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Classification and Application of Biodegradable Polymer Materials (Part 1)

Jun. 08, 2020
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The extensive application of polymer materials has caused a large amount of discarded polymers in human survival and life, which has caused greater pollution in the environment. The study of biodegradable polymer materials is to reduce the amount of waste so that humans can achieve sustainable development. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct research on the classification and application of biodegradable polymer materials in order to better reduce environmental pollution and enable human society to achieve better development. The biodegradable bag supplier shares this article for you.

1 Classification of biodegradable polymer materials

1.1 Natural polymer materials

In daily life, cellulose and chitin are high-yield natural polymer materials, and the annual biosynthetic capacity will exceed 1030t. In addition, substances such as protein and starch are also natural polymer materials. Materials made from these materials have good biocompatibility, can be completely degraded, and are safe and non-toxic. Therefore, the use of natural polymer materials for product manufacturing can achieve the full utilization of natural renewable resources, and better achieve environmental governance. However, the thermodynamic properties of natural polymer materials are poor, and often cannot meet the processing requirements of engineering materials. When using natural polymer materials, it is usually necessary to chemically modify the materials and realize the blending of the molecules in order to obtain biodegradable materials with good degradability and practicality.

1.2 Chemically synthesized polymer materials

Chemically synthesized polymer materials have many advantages. It can design the structure of the molecular backbone from the perspective of molecular chemistry, control the physical properties of polymer materials, and can also make full use of various small molecule monomers extracted or synthesized in nature. Polymer. Synthetic polymers mainly include chemical synthesis and enzymatic synthesis. The synthetic polymer products currently developed mainly include polylactic acid and polycaprolactone. In addition to aliphatic polyesters, polyphenols, polyaniline, polycarbonate, and polyaspartic acid have been successfully developed. However, further research is needed on how to precisely control the performance by designing molecular structures.

1.2 Chemically synthesized polymer materials

Chemically synthesized polymer materials have many advantages. It can design the structure of the molecular backbone from the perspective of molecular chemistry, control the physical properties of polymer materials, and can also make full use of various small molecule monomers extracted or synthesized in nature. Polymer. Synthetic polymers mainly include chemical synthesis and enzymatic synthesis. The synthetic polymer products currently developed mainly include polylactic acid and polycaprolactone. In addition to aliphatic polyesters, polyphenols, polyaniline, polycarbonate, and polyaspartic acid have been successfully developed. However, further research is needed on how to precisely control the performance by designing molecular structures.

1.3 Microbial synthetic polymer materials

As the name implies, the microbial synthetic polymer material is a kind of polymer material produced by "biological" fermentation through various carbon sources. The characteristics of products made from microbial synthetic polymer material can be completely degraded. This polymer material has good degradability and thermoplasticity, is easy to process and shape, but it is not very heat resistant and the mechanical strength is not enough. In addition, the cost of microbial synthetic polymer materials is relatively high, and currently only used in industries with relatively high added value, such as medicine and electronics.

1.4 Blended polymer materials

Blended polymer materials mainly refer to the blending or copolymerization of two or more polymer materials, at least one of which is biodegradable, and this component mostly uses starch, cellulose, chitosan, And other natural polymers. Taking starch as an example, it can be divided into three types: starch-filled type, starch graft copolymer type, and starch matrix type biodegradable polymer material. Starch mixed with polyethylene, polyvinyl alcohol, and polystyrene is starch-filled, starch grafted with methyl acrylate and butyl acrylate styrene is starch-grafted, but most of these two types of polymer materials cannot be completely degraded completely, Belongs to incomplete biodegradable polymer materials, so its prospects are not very good. The starch-based biodegradable polymer material is mainly prepared by adding starch as the main component and adding a degradable additive.

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