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Classification of biodegradable plastics

Dec. 23, 2019
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Classified from raw materials, there are at least the following types of biodegradable plastics:

Polycaprolactone (PCL)

This plastic has good biodegradability and has a melting point of 62 ° C. The microorganisms that break it down are widely distributed under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. As a biodegradable plastics material, it can be mixed with starch and cellulose materials or polymerized with lactic acid.

Polybutylene succinate (PBS) and copolymers thereof

The technology of manufacturing various high molecular weight polyesters based on PBS (melting point: 114 ° C) has reached the level of industrial production. Japan's Mitsubishi Chemical and Showa Polymer Corporation have begun industrial production with a scale of about 1,000 tons.

The Institute of Physics and Chemistry of the Chinese Academy of Sciences is also conducting research on the synthesis of polybutylene succinate copolyester. The Institute of Physics and Chemistry of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has cooperated with Shandong Huiying Company to build a production line with an annual output of 25,000 tons of PBS and its polymers, and Guangdong Jinfa Company has built a production line with an annual output of 1,000 tons.

Polylactic acid (PLA)

Natureworks in the United States has done active and effective work in improving the production process of polylactic acid. It has developed fermentation of glucose from corn to produce polylactic acid, with an annual production capacity of 14,000 tons. Japan's UNITIKA company has developed and produced many kinds of products, among which canvas, trays, biodegradable foam, tableware, etc. are widely used in Japan's Aichi Expo.

Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)

The industrialized production abroad is mainly the United States and Brazil. Biodegradable plastics obtained from renewable resources, aliphatic polyester and starch are mixed together, and the technology for producing degradable plastics has also been successfully researched. In Europe and the United States, blends of starch and aliphatic polyesters are widely used to produce products such as garbage bags. The world's largest and best-selling company is Italy's Novamont, whose trade name is Mater-bi. The company's products have a large number of applications in Europe and the US.

Aliphatic aromatic copolyester

The aliphatic aromatic random copolyester (Ecoflex) manufactured by the German BASF company is composed of adipic acid, terephthalic acid and 1,4-butanediol. The production capacity is 140,000 tons / year. At the same time, biodegradable packaging bags based on polyester and starch were developed.

Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) biodegradable plastics

For example, MaterBi of Italy NOVMANT mainly added PVA to starch in the 1990s. It can blow film and process other products. Polyvinyl alcohol materials need to be modified to have good biodegradability. The Institute of Light Industry Plastics Processing and Application of Beijing Technology and Business University has achieved certain results in this regard.

Carbon dioxide copolymer

Overseas, the earliest countries to study carbon dioxide copolymers were mainly Japan and the United States, but there has been no industrial production. The low molecular weight carbon dioxide copolymer technology developed by Dr. Chen Liban of the Guangzhou Institute of Chemical Technology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has begun production in Taixing, Jiangsu. The species is a low molecular weight carbon dioxide / epoxy compound copolymer, which is used as a raw material for polyurethane foaming materials and for household appliances. And other packaging.

Others such as chitin, polyamide, polyaspartic acid, glycan, cellulose, etc. are under development.

Biodegradable T-shirt Bag

Biodegradable T-shirt Bag

Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB)

From a worldwide perspective, PHB and PHBV are recognized as one of the most promising biodegradable plastics, and they are new products under development. The pilot production cost of the technical party is about RMB 40 / kg. The cost of the product after industrialization will be further reduced, and the price advantage is obvious. Especially the technical party's simple production process and simple equipment are convenient for promotion and large-scale production.

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